Re: Coindicence or by design?
I measured five (5), unfired 500 S&W cases. (I inserted an inverted, spent primer in the primer pocket to seal the case.) The average weight of the volume of the case was 65.85 grains of water. Converting that to cubic centimeters yields 4.267 ccs. Converting those ccs to cubic inches yields 0.260 cubic inches.
Using a CASE diameter of 0.500" and a CASE length of 1.624 inches. I get a CASE TOTAL VOLUME (capacity plus case wall and head volume) of Pi*(0.500/2)^2*1.624 = 0.319 cubic inches. Converting that to cubic centimeters yields 5.225 ccs.
Now let's come at this bassakwards. The average weight of the empty case was 185.3 grains. There are 15.43 grains in a gram. Therefore, the average measured weight (in grams) of an empty 500 S&W case is 185.3/15.43=12.009 grams. The density of CARTRIDGE BRASS is 8.53 grams per cubic centimeter. Therefore, the VOLUME of CARTRIDGE BRASS in the CASE is equivalent to 12.009/8.53=1.407ccs. Now...
The measured weight of the water in the case is 65.85 grains. Converting that to metric volume we get 4.276 ccs. Converting that to cubic inches we get 0.261 cubic inches of water. Converting the volume of the CARTRIDGE BRASS to cubic inches we get 0.086 cubic inches of cartridge brass. Summing those figures we get 0.347 cubic inches of total volume. Given a TOTAL VOLUME of 0.347 cubic inches we can ask the following question to see how your volume measurements fit the measured data:
If we have a cylinder 0.5" in diameter, how long would it have to be to yield a TOTAL VOLUME of 0.347 cubic inches?
The answer is 1.767 inches. That is 0.142" greater than the actual 1.625" length of the 500 S&W case. (A difference of just over an eighth of an inch  0.125".) Given that we didn't account for the "negative" volume of the extractor groove, I'd say that's pretty close.
None of which gets to your question of the difference between the .460 and the 500, but until we get actual measurements of a .460 case, we're mostly just doing mathematical "selfgratification".
Paul
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